Therefor the theme of this story can not be found within J. Salinger but within the text. Holden may not have been in any war battles, but he takes the reader through battles of his own. In the text, the items and objects that hold symbolic meaning, can be a way that Holden gets the reader to see the world through his eyes, to empathize, and to make the conclusion that this classic novel is revolved around.
Diary of a Madman is a layered and complex narrative, the premise being that the reader must interpret and infer from the diary-writer Poprishchin's subjective account of events where the truth of the story actually lies. This story could be considered in terms of its importance to the development of a tradition within the short story — the medium of a lone male narrator filtering the struggles of the modern bureaucratic and industrial world through his own intense inner dramas was to become an essential mode of short fiction through the work of successors such as Dostoyevsky, Kafka, Beckett, and so on. And it is radically different when compared with the short prose of the times. In Diary of a Madman , the narrator's statements are immediately ambiguous.
The madman's ideas represent in part the changes sought by the Revolution of -- a spirit of progress and reform at both the personal and social levels; the rejection of an oppressive traditionalism, ignorance, and conformity. Lu Xun's story is often described as exposing the "cannibalistic feudal society" of pre-revolution China. The enigmatic ending, "Save the children! Beyond its addressing of a specific historical situation, the story is marked by a deep sense of and feeling for the ironies, false appearances, and deceptions often involved in human social life. Read Lu Xun's "Diary of a Madman" here.
For that reason, he promoted individuals to find out from foreign nations. Among these authors, Gogol was the one whom he admired most. Though both stories are written in diary form, the concept of time and the narrative methods are presented differently. The dates become less understandable when time proceeds and the date in the last entry becomes upside down and inside out. When his-self image as a gentleman is thwarted in reality, he is capable to soothe himself with psychology victory over the defeats.