The extent to which a building is damaged will be dictated by the dynamic characteristics of the lahar, i. The focus of this paper is on quantifying how buildings may respond to impact by lahar. We consider the potential for lahar damage to buildings on Merapi volcano, Indonesia, as a result of the voluminous deposits produced during the large VEI 4 eruption in A building-damage scale has been developed that categorises likely lahar damage levels and, through theoretical calculations of expected building resistance to impact, approximate ranges of impact pressures. We found that most weak masonry buildings on Merapi would be destroyed by dilute lahars with relatively low velocities ca. We applied this preliminary damage scale to a large lahar in the Putih River on 9 January , which inundated and caused extensive building damage in the village of Gempol, 16 km southwest of Merapi.
BLIND SOURCE SEPARATION: AN APPLICATION TO THE MT. MERAPI VOLCANO, INDONESIA
Causes The volcano and its eruptions were caused by the Indo Australian plate being sub ducted beneath the Eurasian plate. This caused great pressure and heat from friction between the plates which melted the Indo-Australian plate to form magma. The magma was lighter than its surrounding area so rose to the surface and caused a violent volcanic eruption. Furthermore, the volcanic eruption was particularly violent because Mount Merapi is a composite volcano with viscus lava that is more resistant to moving quickly, which in turn leads to the build up of pressure. The volcano is located on a destructive plate margin at a subduction zone and is part of the 'Pacific Ring of Fire' Primary effects On 25th October there were three major eruptive moments and hundreds of tremors.
It is 28 km north of Yogyakarta city population 1. The volcano is m ft tall. Some villages are located as high as m.